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Frequently used assessment methods

Frequently used assessment methods

Norm-referenced assessment methods

  •  MCQs and Extended Matching Items
  • Computer-based assessment
  • Modified essay questions
  • Short answer questions
  • Progress test

Criterion-based assessments

  • Mini-Cex  
  • OSCE
  • Case Presentations
  • Oral exams
  • Portfolio exams
  • Group assessment
  • Peer assessment
  • Self- assessments


1.     Constructing Written Test Questions for the Basic and Clinical Sciences, 3rd revision. (2002). Contributing authors: Case, S.M. and Swanson, D. B. National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). Printed in the United States of America.

2.     Gaytan, J  &  McEwen, B. (2003). Effective online instructional and assessment strategies.  American Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 117–132

3.     Shumway, J.M.  & Harden, R.M. (2003) AMEE Guide no. 25: The assessment of learning outcomes for the competent and reflective practitioner. Medical Teacher, 25, 6, 569-584

4.     Norcini, J. & Burch, V. (2007). Workplace-based assessment as an educational tool: AMEE Guide No. 31. Medical Teacher 29, 855-871

5.     Newble, D. (2004) Techniques for measuring clinical competence: Objective Standard Clinical Examinations. Medical Education, 38, 199-203 (Blueprint)

6.     Burch, V. &  Seggie, J. (2005).  Portfolio assessment using a structured interview. Medical Education, 39,  114.

7.     Victoria University Teaching Development Centre. (2004).  Improving Teaching and Learning: Group Work and Group Assessment. Victoria University of Wellington, Australia.

8.     Finn, G.B. &  Garner, J. (2011). Twelve tips for implementing a successful peer assessment. Medical Teacher, 33, 443–446

9.     Colthart, I., Bagnall, G.,  Evans, A.,  Allbutt, H., Haig, A., Illing, J. &  McKinstry, B. (2008). The effectiveness of self-assessment on the identification of learner needs, learner activity, and impact on clinical practice: BEME Guide no. 10. Medical Teacher, 30, 124–145